How has jihad become synonymous with violence? Dr. Osman explores the topic of jihad by examining the many conflicts that led to violence in the Middle East. Beginning in the early 20th century, Dr. Osman discusses how colonialism gave rise to nationalism (pan-Arabism) and the Islamic movements (Egypt, Afghanistan, and India). How did nationalism and religion collide and what were the consequences after independence? Also, the emergence of the United States and its unrelenting support for Israel and the rise of terrorism are examined.